South-South and Triangular Cooperation > Japan

All JICA activity, including Triangular Cooperation, are formulated based on the needs of Partner countries and their requests. Every JICA office consults every year with partner (Pivotal and Beneficiary) countries for formulating programs in a coming year. In addition, JICA facilitates inter-regional need-resource matching in Latin America. In South-East Asia, JICA align to the work of ASEAN secretariat to identify development needs of member countries and resource to address these needs.

In JICA’s SSC support, three types of cooperation are identified,

  1. Two step knowledge transfer - knowledge is transferred from Japan to pivotal countries (emerging donors), and then those pivotal countries transfer localized knowledge to neighbors.
  2. Joint cooperation with complementary parallel efforts - Japan and a pivotal country promote a joint project in which each actor transfers its knowledge based on the principle of comparative advantages.
  3. Strengthening the regional/interregional partnerships - Japan supports pivotal countries in formulating a cooperation framework and strengthening networking among stakeholders.

These are conducted mainly in the forms of dispatch of experts and training programmes hosted by public institutions/universities of the pivotal countries. Cost of these types of cooperation are shared under a parallel funding arrangement, which is prepared for each project/programme, and defines budget items to be borne by JICA and a pivotal country.

In FY2011, 105 experts were dispatched as part of JICA’s triangular cooperation and 3,780 personnel participated in the training-type programme, in collaboration with 42 pivotal countries (Angola, Argentina, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Cambodia, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Philippines, Senegal, Singapore, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Vietnam).

Triangular cooperation, along with other technical cooperation projects, is subject to the terminal evaluation and ex-post evaluation in accordance with rules and guidelines of JICA. Terminal evaluation is performed upon the completion of a project, focusing on its efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability, while ex-post evaluation is conducted after a certain period has passed since the completion of a target project with emphasis on the effectiveness and sustainability of the project.

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A case study of best practices of south-south cooperation/triangular cooperation:

Zambia Investment promotion Project - Triangle of Hope (ZIPP-ToH) aims to crate investment friendly environment in Zambia in cooperation with Malaysia. The project works in developing capacity of ZDA (Zambian Development Agency) in Investment Promotion and providing advisory services for policy making.

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