Triangular cooperation has grown in recent years owing to the interest that developed countries have in associating themselves with the successful Brazilian model of horizontal cooperation. Triangular cooperation provides a space for development cooperation actors to coordinate efforts and optimize technical and financial resources, resulting in projects with more impact. Brazil has increased its triangular partnerships, either with developed countries such as Japan, Germany and the US, or with multilateral agencies, such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), International Labour Organization (ILO), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Food Programme (WFP), Organization of American States (OAS) and World Health Organization (WHO) and, more recently, with the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). The majority is funded by Brazil.
Examples of selected TCB initiatives with Brazilian participation in triangular and South–South cooperation
- Project – Support to the Development of the Culture of Rice in Senegal;
- The “Cotton-4 Project”, which increases the competitivity of the productive chain of cotton in Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad and Mali.
Physical trade infrastructure:
- Pilot-project – Institutional Strengthening of the Port Sector of Benin.
Examples of more projects in triangular and South–South Cooperation with Brazilian participation can be found integrated into the trade-related categories below.
The beneficiary country and two partners (Brazil and a third party) work together in all phases of the triangular South–South cooperation project cycle (identification, preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation).
The set of initiatives that are part of Brazil’s South–South cooperation includes most of the AfT components. However, the monitoring systems used by Brazil do not specifically address AfT initiatives. ABC keeps two specific systems, which contain the profile of each initiative/project and the financial management of the South–South portfolio.
Source: Questionnaire for South-South Cooperation, WTO, DDF documents/t/WT/AFT/1./doc, 2007
Moreover, since January 2007, Brazil has been donating US$70 millions annually to the Mercosur Structural Convergence Fund (FOCEM).
Brazil strives to develop South–South cooperation programmes on the basis of mutually beneficial relationships. In this sense, ABC and other government agencies have undertaken efforts to select cooperation activities that are bound to result in the promotion of trade in partner countries. The government has also invested technical resources in developing a methodology to quantify Brazilian flows of development cooperation in a manner that fits the proxies of the Donor Report System associated with the WTO/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) AfT accounting exercise, even though Brazil does not consider itself a donor country.
Triangular cooperation provides a space for development cooperation actors to coordinate efforts, and optimizes their respective resources, resulting in projects that have, in principle, more impact. Moreover, triangular cooperation gives the opportunity for donor countries in to get in touch with South–South cooperation practices.
Sources of information
- Trade Policy Review, Report by Brazil, World Trade Organization (WTO) Trade Policy Review Body,
WT/TPR/G/212, 2 February 2009
- Trade Policy Review: Report by Brazil, World Trade Organization, WT/TPR/S/212, 2 February 2009
- South Africa and Brazil: Furthering South–South Trade, ITC QUARTERLY MAGAZINE,
International Trade Forum, Issue 2/2010